Minnesota Tree Medics
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Find a solution to your tree care needs

We've developed this site to provide useful information to our customers that can assist us in diagnosing and providing treatment. Please note that our tree care professionals may discover additional evidence upon an actual site visit as well as offer suggestions for treatment not mentioned below.

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Lookup by Tree

Find the solution to your tree care needs based upon the type of tree.

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Lookup by Pest

Find the solution to your tree care needs based upon the pest that you suspect is causing the damage.

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UMN Tree Care Resources

We have linked some great resources to help you learn more about your trees, and how to properly care for them.

Common Pests

Adelgids

Adelgids

Adelgids are very small piercing-sucking insects that feed on conifers. Some species, like the spruce Gall Adelgid, produce wooly masses, or wax on the twigs located at the base of the needles. Adelgids pierce the plant tissue and extract vital nutrients from the tree.

 
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Anthracnose

Anthracnose ( leaf Blight) is a fungal disease that includes many species of fungi and affects many species of trees including ash, dogwood, maple, beech, birch, elm, linden, oak, sycamore, and willow.

 
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Aphids

Aphids are piercing-sucking insects which include a vast number of species.

 
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Apple Scab

Apple Scab is a fungal disease which can affect the leaves, fruit, and twigs of your tree.

 
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Bag Worm

THe bag Worm is a caterpillar that is distinguishable by the "bag" they create around them using Sil and tree debris.

 
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Bronze Birch Borer

THe bronze Birch Borer is a wood-boring beetle, common to the northern part of the united states.We treat trees larger than 6" DBH using a micro-injectable Imidacloprid insecticide. This treatment method can last up to 36 months.

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Budworm

Budworm is found in the northern regions of the united states.the early stage larva is a yellowish,pale green with a light brown head. The mature larva is brown with light colored spots along its back.

 
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Cankers

cankers are lesions in the trunk or branch often caused by mechanical wounding or a bacterial pathogen.

 
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Cankerworm

Spring and Fall Cankerworms are distinct but very small species belonging to the Lepidoptera order of insects.

 
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Caterpillars

Caterpillars are the larvae of moths and butterflies which belong to the large order of insects, Lepidoptera.

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Chlorosis

chlorosis describes a condition in which a tree's foliage loses its  healthy green color and fades to a pale green or yellow hue.

 
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Clearwing Borers

Clearwing borers are moths that resemble wasps or hornets

 
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Dutch Elm Disease

dutch elm DISEASE is a vascular wilt disease caused by a fungus.

 
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Emerald Ash Borer

The Emerald Ash Borer is an invasive wood-boring beetle introduced from Asia that attacks Ash Trees.

 
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Fall Webworm

The fall webworm is a moth in the family Erebidae known principally for its larval stage, which creates the characteristic webbed nests on the tree limbs of a wide variety of hardwoods in the late summer and fall.

 
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Fire blight

Fire blight is a contagious, systemic, bacterial disease and is prevalent on apple and pear trees during cool, wet springs.

 
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Gall Wasps

Gall wasps, also called gallflies, are a family of the order Hymenoptera and are classified with the Apocrita suborder of wasps in the superfamily Cynipoidea. Their common name comes from the galls they induce on plants for larval development

 
 
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Gypsy Moth

gypsy moths are a very DESTRUCTIVE pest that is best identified by the presence of a caterpillar with rows of  distinctive reddish orange and blue spots .

 
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Japanese Beetles

the best EVIDENCE of japanese beetles is the beetle themselves or the lace-like appearance of the leaf.

 
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Leaf Miners

" Leaf Miners" is a term for tiny insects that feed and develop between the epidermal layers of leaves.

 
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Linden Borers

THe linden borer is a boring beetle that attacks the vascular tissue of linden and poplar trees.

 
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Mites

Mites are a tiny, often microscopic, insect that live within many urban landscapes.

 
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Oak Wilt

Oak Wilt is a fungal disease that plugs  the vascular system of Oaks limiting the trees ability to move water and vital nutrients.

 
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Pine Bark Beetles

Bark Beetles are a boring type of beetle that lives and feeds within the vascular system located just under the bark of the tree.

 

Tree Species

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Apple

Apple TREES are fruit-bearing DECIDUOUS trees that grow throughout the United States

 
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Ash

Ash trees are extremely common throughout the United states. ash tree leaves are found in compound groupings and the bark  frequently has diamond patterns.

 
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Beech

The beech tree is a deciduous tree that is native to the united states.

 
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Birch

the birch tree is closely related to the oak and beech families. birch trees are found in mountainous regions THROUGHout the united states.

 
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Crab Apple

Crab apple trees can  be found throughout north america and grow to be over 30 feet tall..

 
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Cherry

cherry trees are common throughout the eastern united states. the majority of cherry trees found in urban environments are the very fragrant ornimental type.

 
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Dogwood

dogwood trees have beautiful white or pink blossoms in the spring, and deep green foliage through the summer months.

 
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Elm

elm trees are relatively rare throughout urban landscape due to dutch elm disease that killed the majority of trees throughout the united states.

 
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Fir

fir trees are resinous conifers found throughout the united states. fir is popular in both the lumber and christmas tree industries.

 
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Hawthorn

the hawthorn tree can be found throughout the united states and is popular in urban landscapes due to its beautiful white flower buds.

 
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Hemlock

hemlock trees are resinous conifers that can be found in landscapes throughout the eastern united states.

 
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Hickory

Hickory trees are common throughout the united states. large concentrations of hickory trees can be found in the south.

 
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Linden

Linden trees can be found in urban landscapes throughout north america. 

 
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Maple

maples trees are common throughout the natural and urban landscapes of the northeastern united states.

 
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Oak

oak trees are one of the most common varities of tree seen throughout the united states.

 
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Pear

the majority of pear trees found in urban landscapes are of the ornimental variety.

 
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Pine

pine trees are perhaps the most common variety of tree located in both the natural and urban environments of the united states.

 
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Poplar

there are upwards of 30 species of poplar trees located throughout the united states.

 
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Spruce

The spruce tree is a type of evergreen that is located throughout the northern united states and can grow up to 200 feet tall.

 
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Walnut

the walnut tree is common throughout the eastern united states.

 
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Willow

Willow trees are common throughout the united states and can be found near rivers and lakes.

 

   Adelgids feeding on a Spruce Tree

 Adelgids feeding on a Spruce Tree

Adelgids commonly feed on Spruce and Hemlock trees. We treat trees larger than 6" DBH using a micro-injectable Imidacloprid insecticide. This treatment method can last up to 36 months. 

Chlorosis

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Chlorosis

Chlorosis is a yellowing of leaf tissue due to a lack of chlorophyll. Possible causes of chlorosis include poor drainage, damaged roots, compacted roots, high alkalinity, and nutrient deficiencies in the plant. Nutrient deficiencies may occur because there is an insufficient amount in the soil or because the nutrients are unavailable due to a high pH (alkaline soil). Or the nutrients may not be absorbed due to injured roots or poor root growth.

The lack of iron is one of the more common nutrients associated with chlorosis. Manganese or zinc deficiencies in the plant will also cause chlorosis. The way to separate an iron deficiency from a zinc or manganese deficiency is to check what foliage turned chlorotic first. Iron chlorosis starts on the younger or terminal leaves and later works inward to the older leaves. However, manganese and zinc deficiencies develop on the inner or the older leaves first and then progress outward. Plants need iron for the formation of chlorophyll. Chlorophyll gives leaves their green color and is necessary for the plant to produce the food it needs for its own growth. Iron is also necessary for many enzyme functions that manage plant metabolism and respiration. Iron becomes more insoluble as the soil pH climbs above 6.5 to 6.7 (7.0 is neutral - below 7.0, the pH is acidic; above 7.0, the pH is alkaline). With most plants, iron can only be absorbed as a free ion (Fe++) when the pH is between 5.0 and 6.5.

Other elements such as calcium, zinc, manganese, phosphorus, or copper in high amounts in the soil can tie up iron so that it is unavailable to the plant. However, a shortage of potassium in the plant will reduce the availability of iron to the plant. Insufficient iron in the soil is also a problem. In the Chicagoland area, most soils have adequate iron. The problem is the availability of the iron in soil to the plant. In Northeastern Illinois, most soils were formed from limestone bedrock. Thus the chlorosis problem is often due to high soil pH.

Herbaceous plant as well as woody plants are susceptible to chlorosis.

Symptoms can vary depending on several factors. How alkaline is the soil? The higher the pH, the more chlorotic the plant. How long has the plant been chlorotic? In general, the longer the plant has been chlorotic, the more severe the chlorosis. Generally, mild chlorosis starts as a paling (lighter green to lime-green color) of interveinal (between veins) tissue, whereas a yellow color indicates a more serious condition. In some cases, only part of the plant is chlorotic. Affected areas (or the entire plant) may be stunted or fail to produce flowers and fruit. In addition, chlorotic leaves are more prone to scorching and leaf diseases. With severe chlorosis, the leaf veins will turn yellow, followed by the death of the leaf, the affected branch may die back, and death of the entire plant can occur.

We treat trees larger than 6" DBH using a micro-injectable cocktail of Iron, Manganese, Zinc, Boron, and Copper. This treatment method can last up to 36 months.

 

 
 

Clearwing Borers

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Clearwing borers get their name from their see through wings. The larvae, which do all the damage, are unseen, living and feeding on the vascular tissue located under the bark. The feeding and tunneling of the larvae interrupts the flow of water and nutrients within the tree, causing wilting and die back in the limbs and crown. 

We treat trees larger than 6" DBH using a micro-injectable systemic insecticide. This treatment method can last up to 36 months.

 

 
 

Dutch Elm Disease

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Dutch Elm Disease affects many species of Elm, The American Elm being the species most susceptible to death from the disease.The disease is spread by two species of elm beetle as well as through root grafts.

The fungus spreads through the vascular system, rapidly diminishing the ability of the tree to transport water and nutrients. One of the most common first signs of symptoms is known as " flagging" which is the wilting or yellowing of the leaves in the small branches located in the crown of the tree. When the fungus is introduced by the Elm Bark Beetle, whole branches, and limbs may begin to wilt and turn yellow. If left untreated death will result.

We treat trees larger than 6" DBH using a micro-injectable systemic fungicide(Propiconazole). This treatment method can last up to 36 months.

 

 
 

Emerald Ash Borer

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The Emerald Ash Borer is an invasive wood-boring beetle introduced from Asia that attacks Ash Trees.This metalic green beetle was first found in North America in 2002, and has since spread across the country. Damage is caused by the larvae feeding on the vascular tissue of the tree, interrupting the trees ability to transport water and nutrients.

Early symptoms will be the gradual thinning of the canopy and die back of the limbs. As the infestation progresses, the canopy continues to thin and die back. In later stages of infestation, epicormic, or shrub like growth at the base of the tree occurs along with the visible "D" shapes exit holes and sloughing of bark. Left untreated death will result. 

We treat trees larger than 6" DBH using a micro-injectable Emamectin Benzoate insecticide. This treatment method can last up to 36 months.

 
 

Fall Webworm

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Fall Webworm i a defoliating caterpillar found in the Eastern ans Central United States. The caterpillar can have either a darkish body with stripes down the back or a yellowish-green body with a dark stripe.

The worms are about 1" long with white hairs. The caterpillars live and feed of the foliage inside the tents they build on the branches. The webs are unsightly, but the actual damage the caterpillars produce is minimal unless a severe infestation has occurred.We treat trees larger than 6" DBH using a micro-injectable insecticide on non fruit-bearing trees. This treatment method can last up to 36 months.

 
 

Fire blight

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Fire blight is a bacterial disease that is highly contagious and spreads quickly. Fire blight causes damage to just about every part of the host tree. It can appear on the trunk, limbs, and twigs as canker. It will cause leaves and twigs to appear burned and will cause blossoms to turn brown and look wet. A telltale sign is a " Shepherds Crook" that will appear in the branch tips. Fire blight if left untreated will cause death. We treat trees larger than 6" DBH using a micro-injectable systemic fungicide(Propiconazole). This treatment method can last up to 36 months.

 
 

Gall Wasps

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Gall Wasps are tiny wasps, as small as 1mm in length, with many species across the United States. Specific species attack specific trees however most known gall wasps attack only oaks. The wasp lay their eggs in the plant tissue which forms a "gall", or abnormal growth where the eggs are deposited. The larvae live, and feed inside the gall. Galls can form on leaves, stems, and the twigs of the tree. They are more of an eyesore than harmful to the tree. One of the more common is the Oak Gall Wasp which forms spherical gall on the leaves. We treat trees larger than 6" DBH using a micro-injectable Imidacloprid insecticide. This treatment method can last up to 36 months.   

 
 

Gypsy Moth

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The Gypsy moth is a highly destructive caterpillar that was accidently introduced to the United States in New England, but has quickly spread across the country. The Caterpillar is distinctive for its rows of blue and reddish orange spots. It will feed on many species of trees with a preference for Oaks and Aspen. Signs of damage include chewed leafs with early stage caterpillars chewing holes in the leafs. Later stage caterpillars consume the entire leaf leaving the tree looking very thin. The best evidence of the gypsy moth is the caterpillar themselves. We treat trees larger than 6" DBH using a micro-injectable Emamectin Benzoate insecticide. This treatment method can last up to 36 months.

 
 

Japanese Beetles

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The Japanese beetle is an invasive species found primarily east of the Mississippi River and isolated pockets off the mid-western states. The adult beetle is 8-10mm long, with a shiny metallic green thorax and copper-bronze colored wings. The beetle will feed on a variety of trees including linden, apple, crab apple, oak, birch, cherry, and pear among others. The adult beetle "skeletonizes" the leaf, consuming the tender leaf tissue and leaving the veins behind, causing the leaf to have a lace-like appearance. The best evidence of a Japanese beetle infestation is the presence of the beetle themselves.We treat trees larger than 6" DBH using a micro-injectable Imidacloprid insecticide. This treatment method can last up to 36 months.

Bio-insecticides( Organics) are also available for the treatment of this pest.

 
 

Leaf Miners

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"Leaf miners" is a general term for tiny insects which feed and develop between the epidermal layers of leaves. Leaf miners can be flies, wasps, moths, or beetles. A common leaf miner is the birch leaf miner which attacks birch trees, but there are many species that attack other types of trees. The damage is characterized by brownish, semi-translucent blotches on the leaves, representing the mines inside of which the immature larvae are feeding. We treat trees larger than 6" DBH using a micro-injectable Imidacloprid insecticide. This treatment method can last up to 36 months.

Bio-insecticides( Organics) are also available for the treatment of this pest.

 
 

Linden Borer

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The Linden Borer is a boring beetle that attacks linden and poplar trees. It is primarily found in the Northeastern regions of the United States. The adult beetle is olive in color with long antennae.The larvae of the beetle feed on vascular tissue under the bark, structural wood, and surface roots , usually near ground level. Indicators of Linden Borers will be the decline in the lower limbs of the tree and holes in the trunk near the ground.We treat trees larger than 6" DBH using a micro-injectable Imidacloprid insecticide. This treatment method can last up to 36 months.

Bio-insecticides( Organics) are also available for the treatment of this pest.

 
 

Mites

 Lime nail gall caused by mites

Lime nail gall caused by mites

 
 

Mites are similar to insects but belong to the spider family. There are thousands of species, but the most common that are found in urban landscapes are spider mites, and gall mites. Mites are tiny, with most species being microscopic, however, spider mites can be visual to the eye appearing as tiny specs, frequently on the underside of leaf and amid very fine webbing. Evidence of a spider mite infestation may be speckling and motting of the leaf or needle causing the plant to appear grey, or washed out. The presence of gall mites would be indicated by gall or tiny abnormal growth on the leaves, stems, or twigs inside of which mites live and feed.We treat trees larger than 6" DBH using a micro-injectable Emamectin Benzoate insecticide. This treatment method can last up to 36 months.

Bio-insecticides( Organics) are also available for the treatment of this pest.

 
 

Oak Wilt

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Oak wilt is a fungal disease which affects the vascular tissue of oak trees. It is mostly found in the Eastern and Central part of the United States. The fungus damages the tree by causing the vascular system to become plugged, limiting or eliminating the trees ability to move water, and vital nutrients. Initial signs of Oak Wilt are leaves that turn brown from the outward edges in. The symptoms spread quickly throughout the tree causing defoliation and ultimately death.We treat trees larger than 6" DBH using a micro-injectable systemic fungicide(Propiconazole). This treatment method can last up to 36 months.

 
 

Pine Bark Beetles

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Pine Bark Beetles are a type of boring beetle that tunnel and feed under the bark within the vascular system of the tree. Trees infested with bark beetles will gradually turn brown, defoliate, and die. Upon inspection of the trunk, there could be exit holes and/or pitch tubes in the bark indicating that the beetle has transitioned through the bark layer.The beetles feeding interupts the trees ability to move water and vital nutrients. Several types of beetles also introduce a fungus to the tree that further inhibits the vascular system.We treat trees larger than 6" DBH using a micro-injectable Imidacloprid insecticide. This treatment method can last up to 36 months.

 
 
 
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Common pests that may be causing the decline of your apple tree

 

 
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Apple Scab

Apple Scab is a fungal disease which can cause the decline of leaves, fruit, and twigs of the tree.

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Aphids

Aphids are piercing sucking insects that are often found feeding in large groups.

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Bagworms

Bag worms most often attack new buds causing die back.

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Fireblight

FIreblight is a bacterial disease that causes damage to virtually every part of the tree.

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Japanese Beetles

Japanese beetles consume the tender part of the leaf leaving the veins that create a lace like appearance.

 
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Common pests that may be causing the decline of your tree

 
 
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Anthracnose

a fungal disease that causes the leaves to develop tan to REDDISH-brown spots.

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Aphids

Aphids are often found feeding in large groups.

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Emerald Ash Borer

The emerald Ash borer feeds on the vascular system of the tree, and is rapidly expanding across the urban landscape. 

 
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Common pests that may be causing the decline of your Beech tree

 
 
 
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Common pests that may be causing the decline of your Birch tree

 
 
 
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Common pests that may be causing the decline of your Crab Apple tree

 
 
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Apple Scab

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Aphids

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Fall Webworm

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Fireblight

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Japanese Beetle

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Caterpillars

 
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Some of the most common pests found on Oak Trees include

 

 
 
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Anthracnose

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Caterpillars

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Chlorosis

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Gypsy Moth

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Oak Wilt